Science Articles

Acute poisoning with potent and poisonous substances, including drugs and alcohol, alkaloids, heavy metal salts, etc.

S.N. Elovikov investigated the efficiency of the use of Polisorb MP in narcological practice for the relief of drug and alcohol abstinence. The use of Polisorb MP in the comprehensive therapy of patients with alcohol and drug abstinence was carried out on the basis of a neuropsychiatric hospital, as well as on the basis of an emergency drug treatment team, an anonymous office and a day hospital, where only alcohol abstinence syndrome was treated. Polisorb MP was prescribed up to 4 g 4 times a day for 5 days in case of alcohol abstinence syndrome and up to 10-12 days in the same doses in case of opium abstinence. For all patients enterosorption was performed in the course of basic drug detoxification and psychotropic therapy. The course of treatment was carried out in 183 patients with chronic alcoholism and 32 patients with opium addiction. Based on the experience of using Polisorb MP, the author came to the conclusion that it is advisable to include this medicine in the comprehensive therapy of abstinence conditions. 

Based on the study of M.K. Vishnevetsky  et al. (2017) high efficiency and gastrointestinal sorption capacity of Polisorb MP in the case of drug poisoning was established. The study was carried out on the basis of the toxicological center of the city ambulance station in Perm. The study included 3 groups: comparison group (n = 175), group 2 with patients that received Polisorb PM at the hospital stage (n = 107) and group 3 with patients that received Polisorb MP at the prehospital stage with continued administration of the drug in the hospital (n = 53). At the prehospital stage, enterosorbent was injected into the stomach through a tube at the rate of 14 g per 150 ml of water. After a 10-minute exposure, the stomach was lavaged until lavage water was clean and Polisorb MP was re-administered at a dose of 30g per 150 ml of water. In the hospital, Polisorb MP was prescribed in the dose of 4–5 g every 4–6 hours for 2–5 days. The average daily dose of the sorbent was 30 g. The results revealed that the use of Polisorb MP at the prehospital stage and in the hospital had a positive effect on the course of poisoning, a decrease in the incidence rate of pneumonia was observed by 1.6 times, the cardiotoxic effect by 1.3 times, and the duration of hospitalization by 2–2.5 times.

After the administration of Polisorb MP, an improvement in the clinical condition was noted within the first hours; all patients left the toxigenic phase of poisoning. No deaths in the study group were recorded. A decrease of the hospital stay was noted in those patients who were included in the main study group.

N.Kh.Khafizov et al. (2000) investigated the efficiency of the use of Polisorb MP enterosorbent in the treatment of alcohol abstinence syndrome. The authors observed 250 patients (218 men and 32 women), aged between 16 and 70 years, who received detoxification therapy using Polisorb MP for 1 to 5 days. All patients were admitted to the center for the treatment of acute poisoning with a diagnosis of alcohol abstinence syndrome. Enterosorption was performed in the course of symptomatic drug therapy, the volume of which corresponded to the degree of intoxication and abstinence. Polisorb MP was used at a dose of 5 g per reception 3 times a day until the relief of abstinence symptoms. The condition of patients was assessed by clinical and functional indicators. An improvement in the condition of patients, normalization of the functions of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems and a decrease in the severity of withdrawal symptoms were noted. Studies have shown that Polisorb MP is effective depending on the severity of alcohol abstinence syndrome, the presence of concomitant chronic gastrointestinal diseases, and it can be successfully used in the treatment of patients with alcohol abstinence symptoms. 

N.A. Karpun et al. conducted a clinical testing of the Polisorb MP enterosorbent, which was used in the preparation of 10 patients with heroin intoxication to perform anesthesia-assisted pharmacological detoxification. The control group consisted of 14 patients with heroin addiction without the use of enterosorption. After the patient was under the effect of anesthesia, with intubated trachea and transferred to artificial ventilation, a probe was inserted into the stomach and an aqueous suspension of the drug was injected. Polisorb MP was administered in a daily dose twice with a 2.5 hour interval between the administrations. At the end of anesthesia-assisted pharmacological detoxification, the probe was removed in the course of active aspiration of gastric contents. Compared with the control group, patients who received Polisorb MP have shown no sign of dyspeptic disorders (nausea, vomiting, frequent loose stools); 100% of patients had a negative test for the presence of opioids in the urine at the end of the anesthesia-assisted pharmacological detoxification (while in the control group this test was positive in 30% of patients), which made it possible to speak of adsorption and elimination of some of the heroin from the gastrointestinal tract.